Football is the national sport in Uganda. The Uganda national football team, nicknamed "The Cranes" is controlled by the Federation of Uganda Football Associations. They have never qualified for the FIFA World Cup finals. Their best finish in the African Cup of Nations was second in 1978.

As of 2020, Uganda at the Olympics has won a total of two gold, three silver, and two bronze medals; four of which were in boxing and three in athletics. Uganda at the Commonwealth Games has collected 13 gold medals and a total 49 medals, all in boxing and athletics.

The Uganda national boxing team is called The Bombers.[200] They have won four medals at the Summer Olympics from 1968 to 1980, as well as two medals the 1974 World Amateur Boxing Championships. Notable boxers include Cornelius Boza-Edwards, Justin Juuko, Ayub Kalule, John Mugabi, Eridadi Mukwanga, Joseph Nsubuga, Kassim Ouma, Sam Rukundo and Leo Rwabwogo.

In athletics, John Akii-Bua won the first Olympic gold medal for Uganda. At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, he won the 400m hurdles race with a world record time of 47.82 seconds.[201] 400 metres runner Davis Kamoga earned the bronze medal at 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and the silver medal at the 1997 World Championships. Dorcus Inzikuru won the 3000 m steeplechase at the 2005 World Championships and the 2006 Commonwealth Games.

Stephen Kiprotich has won the marathon at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and the 2013 World Championships, and finished second at the 2015 Tokyo Marathon.[202] Joshua Cheptegei has won 10 km races at the World Championships, World Athletics Cross Country Championships and Commonwealth Games, and has set world records in 5 km and 15 km. Halimah Nakaayi won the 800 meters race at the 2019 World Championships.

In cricket, Uganda was part of the East Africa team that qualified for the Cricket World Cup in 1975.

The country has an increasingly successful national basketball team. It is nicknamed "The Silverbacks,"[203] and made its debut at the 2015 FIBA Africa Championship.

In July 2011, Kampala, Uganda qualified for the 2011 Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania for the first time, beating Saudi Arabian baseball team Dharan LL, although visa complications prevented them from attending the series.[204] Little League teams from Uganda qualified for and attended the 2012 Little League World Series.